Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal communications)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal communications)

(20) The definition of to own ‘brother’, aha in the BT, possess on the other hand become enhanced, even though this means is also utilized in Turoyo. Hertevin have each other ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

Additionally, additional NENA, i have almost every other terms and conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) You to rather strange items which is attested in most NENA languages except Sanandaj Religious (and that probably simply a chance pit regarding the facts) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that the term derives regarding sources ql ‘to getting crooked’. All the languages utilize the means aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Various other term chatted about from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted brand new Syriac atta in every NENA, but not inside the Turoyo or Mandaic. That it term generally seems to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to note you to an uneven plural endures inside multiple dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) Surprise innovation pointed out from the Noldeke (1868, 59) try rxata, add up to Syriac rhat. The alteration regarding h to x inside one word was included in all NENA languages where in actuality the verb is actually attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Several other unforeseen development is the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes this new models zda?a beneficial, zdaya, and you may zdala throughout the individuals languages. Macuch and Panoussi (1974, 50) bring a prospective derivation regarding the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Versions to your infixed d are found in every the NENA dialects where resources is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not totally all of determining attributes of NENA are located in a choice of Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

In my opinion your more than will make it clear the NENA dialects display many unique faculties which can be receive neither in the previous attested types of Aramaic nor from the other life style dialects. These characteristics diversity along side domains of phonology, morphology, additionally the lexicon.

Especially, all the languages out of NENA consent in the requirements dos, nine, fourteen, 15, sixteen, 21, and twenty two. All the languages in which i’ve recommendations including agree on standards 20, 23, and 24.

All but Halabja concur for the conditions 8 and https://datingranking.net/fr/rencontres-cougar/ you will 11. Criterion six is situated in all languages but Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Religious.

Despite their internal departments, the fresh NENA languages form a strikingly defined category, split up clearly away from one another Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The career ones languages outside the NENA pale may be out of matter.

The amount that keeps is common across NENA is specially unbelievable when we look at the immense differences when considering the different languages. This new influence from other dialects toward NENA could have been one another strong and you can wider, therefore the level of mutual intelligibility ranging from dialects can be very short. The countless shared designs argue firmly for a common provider off the brand new NENA dialects, in both a single dialect or perhaps in several closely related dialects. Meanwhile, we are able to discern a handful of important bundles out of isoglosses and this show this new borders off dialect communities.

a) The fresh new dialect of Halabja does not share particular crucial innovations and that are found by way of all other countries in the languages. It does not setting good CCiC-ce preterite out-of intransitive verbs (8), it’s got zero b(it)- coming marker (10), features zero third individual just one copula which have 1 (11). This might be the quintessential standard department anywhere between dialects off NENA. This means the kept languages mode a group whereby designs pass on if you’re Halabja stayed unchanged because of the her or him.

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